沿脉进路无底柱分段崩落法采准的优化-矿业114网 
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沿脉进路无底柱分段崩落法采准的优化
2011-07-26
Deficient floor slope angle of an ore body often needs to dig a drift (or access) in its footwall rock when adopting non2pil2 lar sublevel caving following2vein excavation. Considering the problem that the conventional qualitative determination of the bourn of rock digging results in a poor index ...
第 2 58 卷 第 4 期 0 0 6 年 1 1 月   有 色 金 属     Vol158 , No14     November 2 0 0 6 Nonferrous Metals Optimization of Development Work for Non2pillar Sublevel Caving with Following2vein Drift ZHA N G Guo2lian , S ON G Jian , QIU Jing2ping ( School of Resource & Civil Engineering , Northeastern University , Shenyang 110004 , China)   Abstract : Deficient floor slope angle of an ore body often needs to dig a drift (or access) in its footwall rock when adopting non2pil2 lar sublevel caving following2vein excavation. Considering the problem that the conventional qualitative determination of the bourn of rock digging results in a poor index of ore recovery , two quantitative methods are brought out to determine the bourn of rock digging. It adopts the maximum profits of mined ore and unit reserve ore as indicators. The analysis results show that the maximum profit of unit reserve ore is more rational. With real examples , the optimal distance between following2vein drift and ore body with respect to the ore deposit diver2 sity is analyzed. According to the ore body condition and economical index , the distance between following vein drift and ore body at Zhangjiawa Iron Mine - 250m level is optimized , and the optimal distances for various ore deposit situations and the corresponding count2 ing formula are obtained. Based on regression , a general counting formula is also developed. The optimazation method and outcome can serve as a basis for the development design of Zhangjiawa Iron Mine non2pillar sublevel caving with following2vein , access and provide a reference to other mines in determining footwall rock digging bourn and drift position. Keywords : mining engineering ; following2vein drift ; non2pillar ; sublevel caving ; rock digging bourn ; optimization CLC Number : TD853. 31 ; TD853. 362 Document Code : A Article ID : 1001 - 0211 (2006) 04 - 0089 - 05   Deficient floor slope angle of an ore body often premise to determine the drift position , which de2 pends on the drilling depth of jack hammer and the stability of tunnel. Through simulating in lab , it is found that footwall rock digging angle is 70 , which can act as a constant. Therefore , the drift position actually reflects footwall rock digging boundary , i. e. a known rock digging (excavation) boundary means a determined drift position , vice versa. needs to dig a drift (or access) in its footwall rock when adopting non2pillar sublevel caving following2 vein excavation. The drift position is an important structural parameter. Different drift positions result in different ore recovery indexes , i. e. near to an ore body , depletion is small but recovery index is low ; far from the ore body , recovered ore volume increases but depletion also increases. Therefore , regardless devel2 opment design or mining production schemes , much importance must be attached to the drift position. The drift position depends on sublevel height and rock digging (excavation) boundary , that is , drift position is determined when sublevel height and rock digging boundary are known. Sublevel height is a conceptual parameter of mining method and is the There are three conventional rock digging meth2 ods , which are footwall rock digging , drift roof rock digging and drift floor rock digging , as shown in Fig2 ure 1. When the footwall slope angle of an ore body is inclined or highly inclined , it adopts floor rock dig2 ging. When the footwall slope angle of an ore body is inclined or gently inclined , it often adopts roof rock digging or footwall rock digging. This method is ob2 viously very unpredictable because of its empirical fea2 ture , whose outcome is very difficult to guarantee. Therefore , it is necessary to do further research on rock digging boundary in order to obtain a quantita2 tive optimizing method. Received date : 2006 - 05 - 17 Project supported by : The Chinese Tenth Five Year Science and Technology Plan Project ( 2001BA609A - 1 0) Biography: Mr. ZHANG Guo2lian ( 1966 - ) , from Liaoyang of Liaoning Province , China , Vice professor , mainly en2 gaged in the research of underground resources and space development. 9 0 有 色 金 属 第 58 卷 rived according to the equation. 1 . 2Maximal prof it of unit reserves ore The variety of ore or rock quantity in each grade along with X , within the possible rock digging bound is demonstrated in Figure 3. With increment of X , the reserves ore quantity Scl dwindles , the losing ore quantity Ssk decreases , but the dropping2in rock quantity S y increases and there is a maximum about the extracted ore quantity Sf k . Fig. 1 Determining method of footwall rock digging boundary 1 Criterion of optimal rock digging ( excavation) bourn Based on ore quantity , the profit of unit reserves 1 . 1Maximal prof it of unit extracted ore ore de is given by de = { ( Sf k·γ + Sy·γ y) ·[ ( Sf k·γ k k · pk + Sy·γ · py) / ( Sf k·γ + S y·γ y) - cw ]· Mj/ ( cj - cw ) - Cv} / ( Scl·γ k) . The zero profit of ore or rock increment for the y k bourn of rock digging is necessary to ensure the maxi2 mal profit of unit extracted ore. The ore increment and rock increment can be defined by the equations according to Figure 2. Where cw is the grade of tailing ore ( %) , cj the grade of concentrate ( %) , Mj is the price of concen2 trate , Cv is the variable cost of extracted ore or rock and the others ditto mark. The ore increment Δ Qk is given by Δ Qk = ( l2 d x·sinβ - l4·d x·sinθ ) ·γ , and the rock increment Δ Qy is given by Δ Qy = ( ( l1·d x·sinβ - l3·d x·sinθ ) ) . Where the bound between ore and rock ( X) can · k · γ y be denoted by the distance from drift interval to ore body , and dx is the distance which the x moves out. In order to confirm the zero profit for the bound of rock digging , the total grade of ore and rock incre2 ment must be equal to the cut2off grade here , viz. Fig. 3 Variety of ore or rock quantity along with X There is a maximum for the profit of unit re2 serves ore vs. X , and the drift interval position where the profit of unit reserves ore reaches the maxi2 mum is the optimal one , as shown in Figure 4. ( Δ Qy· py + Δ Qk· pk) / (Δ Qk + Δ Qy) = pj . Fig. 2 Scheme of counting parameters Where the physical meaning of each variable is Fig. 4 Profit of unit reserves ore along with X shown in Figure 2. β is an angle of rock digging and β = 70° , θ is an angle of edge boring andθ = 55° , γ k and γ y , as the specific gravity of ore and rock , are constants. It is obvious that l1 , l2 , l3 are functions of X , and then the rock digging bound X can be de2 1 . 3 Result comparison of two methods Assuming that the slope angle of an ore body is 0° , the width of the ore body is 6m , the price of 3 concentrate is 700 ꢀ/ t and the variable cost of ex2 tracted ore or rock is 75 ꢀ/ t , the cut2off grade is 第 4 期 ZHAN G Guo2lian :Optimization of Development Work for Non2pillar Sublevel Caving with Following2vein Drift 9 1 worked out to be 17. 5 %. The result is illustrated in Table 1. Table 1 Optimal drift intervals position of sublevel x0/ m x1/ m x2/ m 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12. 2 10 12. 8 10. 6 13 13. 8 11. 7 14. 2 12. 2 15 15. 6 13. 2 11. 2 12. 8   Note : x0 , distance from drift intervals to ore body on upper sub2 level ; x1 , by maximal profit of unit reserves ore ; x2 , by maximal profit of unit extracted ore.   The bourn of rock digging according to the max2 Fig. 6 Relation between profit of unit reserves ore along with X under differrent height of sublevel imal profit of unit reserves ore is bigger than that ac2 cording to the maximal profit of unit extracted ore , because of the increase of extracted ore. It is obvious2 ly rather logical. So , the second method is adopted here in optimization. 2 Some laws for optimal bourn of rock digging   The relationships between distance from drift in2 tervals to ore body ( X ) and profit of unit reserves ore , under different ore body width , sublevel height , and drift intervals position of upper sublevel , are shown in Figure 5~ 8. The ore body width does not have significant influence on the optimal drift interval position. The optimal drift interval position augments while the sublevel height or the distance from drift in2 tervals to ore body increases , but decreases while the ore body slope angle increases. Fig. 7 Relation between profit of unit reserves ore along with X under differrent position of drift intervals Fig. 8 Relation between profit of unit reserves ore along with X under differrent slope angle of ore body Mine becomes thin , the thickness of some part ore body is less than 10m , the slope angle of ore body ranges from 30 to 50 , which shows considerable variance. After repeated investigation and discussion , the mine manager decides to adopt non2pillar sublevel caving with following2vein drift for ore body of thick2 ness is less than 15m in order to reduce required engi2 neering work. The sublevels vary from 8 to 12m and rock digging angle is 70 . To keep the maximum re2 serve ore , it is necessary to research the distance be2 tween drift following vein and ore body. Fig. 5 Relation between profit of unit reserves ore along with X under differrent width of ore body 3 Optimization of following2vein drift position at Zhangjiawa Iron Mine 3 . 1 Optimized outcome of following2vein drift position at Zhangjia wa Iron Mine According to the economical index provided by The - 250m level ore body of Zhangjiawa Iron 9 2 有 色 金 属 第 58 卷 the mine and the principle of the maximum profit for unit reserve , the optimization is made for variant sub2 level height , slope angle , footwall drift position fol2 lowing vein and distance between drift following vein and ore body , the integral values of the optimal drift position are obtained as shown in Table 2. The rela2 tionship curves between the optimal drift positions of variant sublevels , slope angles and upper sublevel drift positions are presented in Figure 9~ 11. From Figure 9~ 11 , it is obvious that the relationship be2 tween the present sublevel optimal drift position x and the upper sublevel x0 is linear. In addition to this , the regress curve and equation of variant sublev2 Fig. 10 Relation between optimum drift position with x0 when sublevel height is 10m el x and slope angle x0 are obtained. Table 2 Optimum distance between following2vein drift and ore body with all kinds of schemes x0/ m H/ m α / (°) 1 8 4 2 1 2 9 5 3 1 3 9 5 3 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 8 30 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 4 5 6 0 0 0 6 3 1 6 3 1 6 4 2 7 4 2 7 4 2 8 4 2 8 5 2 Fig. 11 Relation between optimum drift position with x0 when sublevel height is 12m 1 1 0 2 30 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 16 1 6 10929 ) x0 + 12193931 H - 1132204 Htgα - 4 5 6 0 0 0 6 3 1 6 3 1 7 4 1 7 4 2 8 4 2 8 4 2 8 5 2 9 5 2 9 5 2 10 5 1977 Hsin - 816635 Hcos - 11669361 α α 2 Considering F value of the F test , using this e2 30 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 quation , F value satisfies : F = ( S Regress/ FRegress ) / ( S Residul FResidul ) > F0101 (6 , 113) . Then we have 4 5 6 0 0 0 7 4 2 8 4 2 8 4 2 9 5 2 9 5 2 9 5 2 10 10 11 11 5 2 6 3 6 3 6 3 / S Regress = 2442136 , S Total = 2454179 , S Residual = S Total S Regress = 12143. Therefore , F = ( S Regress/ FRegress) / ( S Residul/ FResidul) = (2442136/ 6) / (12143/ - 1 13) = 370015455 > > F0101 (6 ,113) = 3189. It illustrates that the regress equation is notable and valid. 4 Conclusions ( 1) Considering the problem of the conventional qualitative determination of rock digging boundary for non2pillar sublevel caving with following2vein drift , two quantitative determination methods are brought out to determine the bourn of rock digging (excava2 tion) , these are the maximum profits of mined ore and the unit reserve ore. Fig. 9 Relation between optimum drift position with x0 when sublevel height is 8m 3 . 2 Regress equation and check of best drift position There is existing stronger correlation among x , H and α shown in variant regress curves and equa2 tions. A general regress formula is drawn from the data in Table 2 , that is x = ( - 110931sinα + ( 2) The maximum profit of unit reserve ore is more rational , for which the boundary is greater than that computed according to mined ore maximum prof2 第 4 期 ZHAN G Guo2lian :Optimization of Development Work for Non2pillar Sublevel Caving with Following2vein Drift 9 3 it criterion. level is optimized , and the optimal distance for vari2 ant ore deposit situation and corresponding counting formula , as well as a general regress formula are ob2 ( 3) Using real examples , the distance between following2vein drift and ore body corresponding to maximum unit reserve ore profit is increased with the increase of sublevel height , distance between upper drift and ore body and the decrease of ore body slope angle. However , the ore body thickness does not show significant influence. tained , x = ( - 110931sinα + 110929 ) x0 + 12193931 H - 1132204 Htgα 816635 Hcosα - 1166936. - 61977 Hsinα - (5) The optimization method and outcome can serve as a basis of development design of Zhangjiawa Iron Mine non2pillar sublevel caving following vein , which also offers other mines a reference to determine the footwall excavation boundary and drift position. ( 4) According to the ore body condition and eco2 nomical index , the distance between following2vein drift and ore body at Zhangjiawa Iron Mine - 250m References : [ [ 1 ] Liu X G, Zhang Z G. The non2dilution drawing research of non2pillar sublevel caving [J ]. Metal Mine , 1991 , 26(7) : 20 - 23. 2 ] Zhang G L , Qiu J P , Song S Z. Experimental analysis of constructional parameters of nugget mining in Xiaoguanzhuang iron mine [J ]. Journal of Northeastern University (Natural Science) , 2003 , 24(11) : 1092 - 1095. [ [ [ [ 3 ] Wittke W , Pierau B. Foundations for the design and construction of tunnel in swelling rock [C]/ / Proceedings of the 4th Inter2 national Congress on Rock Mechanics. Montreux : AIME , 1979 : 216 - 219. 4 ] Tang C A. Influence of heterogeneity on crack propagation modes in brittle rock [J ]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics , 2000 , 43 ( 1) : 116 - 121. 5 ] Shan S Z , Ren F Y. The slow sloping medium ore2body mining method of soft and hard ore and rock [J ]. Journal of Northeast2 ern University (Natural Science) , 1995 , 16(1) : 6 - 10. 6 ] Li Y H , Sun H R , Liu W. Determination of optimum rock excavating height of ore body footwall during sublevel caving [J ]. Journal of Northeastern University (Natural Science) , 2004 , 25(12) : 1187 - 1190. 沿 脉 进 路 无 底 柱 分 段 崩 落 法 采 准 的 优 化 张 国 联 ,宋 健 ,邱 景 平 ( 东 北 大 学 资 源 与 土 木 工 程 学 院 ,沈 阳 110004)   摘 要 :采 用 沿 脉 布 置 的 无 底 柱 分 段 崩 落 法 ,当 矿 体 底 板 倾 角 不 足 时 ,需 要 在 下 盘 岩 石 中 开 掘 进 路 。 针 对 传 统 定 性 确 定 开 岩 边 界 导 致 矿 石 回 收 指 标 差 的 问 题 ,提 出 了 两 种 定 量 确 定 方 法 ,即 按 采 出 矿 石 赢 利 最 大 和 按 单 位 储 量 矿 石 赢 利 最 大 作 为 确 定 开 岩 边 界 的 判 据 。 分 析 表 明 ,以 单 位 储 量 矿 石 赢 利 最 大 为 判 据 更 合 理 。 通 过 实 例 计 算 ,分 析 了 沿 脉 进 路 与 矿 体 的 最 佳 距 离 随 着 矿 体 赋 存 状 态 的 变 化 规 律 。 根 据 矿 体 条 件 和 经 济 指 标 ,对 张 家 洼 铁 矿 - 250m 中 段 分 段 崩 落 法 沿 脉 进 路 与 矿 体 距 离 进 行 了 优 化 ,得 到 了 各 种 矿 体 赋 存 条 件 下 的 最 佳 距 离 和 相 应 的 计 算 公 式 ,回 归 了 统 一 的 计 算 公 式 。 优 化 方 法 和 结 果 ,可 作 为 张 家 洼 铁 矿 沿 脉 进 路 无 底 柱 分 段 崩 落 法 采 准 设 计 的 依 据 ,对 其 他 矿 山 确 定 下 盘 开 岩 边 界 和 计 算 进 路 位 置 具 有 借 鉴 作 用 。 关 键 词 :采 矿 工 程 ;沿 脉 进 路 ;无 底 柱 ;分 段 崩 落 ;开 岩 边 界 ;优 化 中 图 分 类 号 :TD853131 ; TD8531362 文 献 标 识 码 :A 文 章 编 号 :1001 - 0211 (2006) 04 - 0089 - 05 收 稿 日 期 :2006 - 05 - 17 基 金 项 目 :国 家“ 十 五 ”科 技 攻 关 项 目 (2001BA609A - 10) 作 者 简 介 : 张 国 联 (1966 - ) ,男 ,辽 宁 辽 阳 市 人 ,副 教 授 ,主 要 从 事 地 下 资 源 与 空 间 开 发 等 方 面 的 研 究 。
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